Jury Research Kollectionn

answers to questions about trying cases to juries

Scales of justice

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Scales of Justice

JURORS

voir dire  ·  characteristics  ·  race  ·  gender

JURIES

decision-making  ·  judicial instructions

PERSUASION

strategies  ·  graphics  ·  language

PEOPLE

judges  ·  attorneys  ·  witnesses  ·  experts  ·  litigants

CASES

case types  ·  civil issues  ·  criminal issues

also see   SLIDE SHOWS  and   VISUAL RESOURCES  about jurors' attitudes, beliefs and behaviors

The OJRU blawg offers practical answers to questions about trying cases to juries using social science research. Blawg posts summarize the findings of important research studies, offering persuasive insight to assist with the many delicate, thorny, complex and unavoidable decisions involved in trying cases. Blawg posts are organized by topic to facilitate finding specific subject matter.

Jurors       Voir Dire   ·   Characteristics   ·   Race   ·   Gender 

 

VOIR DIRE

Which jurors get empanelled and which excused?

Are silent jurors in voir dire unbiased jurors?

Do jurors answer fully and truthfully in voir dire?

What do jurors think of attorney voir dire questions?

What is the effect of minimal versus expanded voir dire?

Which type of voir dire best identifies biased jurors?

Is individual or group voir dire more effective at identifying juror bias?

Are jurors more candid in attorney-conducted or judge-conducted voir dire?

Which better uncovers bias: juror questionnaires or oral voir dire?

Is directive or non-directive questioning in voir dire better at identifying juror bias?

Can voir dire questions help jurors set aside a litigant's prior record?

Does voir dire or judicial instruction best educate about due process rights?

Does ingratiation in voir dire affect trial outcomes?

How does mentioning racial bias in voir dire affect juror decision-making?

Do jury consultants affect verdicts in death penalty cases?

JUROR CHARACTERISTICS

How important are demographic characteristics in predicting jurors' verdicts?

Can juror demographics predict punitive damages in high-stakes cases?

How do juror characteristics affect verdicts in personal injury cases?

How does a juror's social class influence understanding of evidence?

How does a juror's social status affect participation in deliberations?

How does a juror's occupation affect damage awards?

Does prior jury experience affect how a juror participates in deliberations?

How does prior jury experience affect jurors' verdicts?

Does a juror's gender affect verdicts in gender discrimination cases?

Do women jurors lean toward the prosecution or defense in rape trials?

Do male jurors talk more than female jurors in deliberations?

Do minority jurors participate less in deliberations than White jurors?

Are Spanish-speaking witnesses more credible to Spanish-speaking jurors?

How do jurors' tort reform attitudes affect civil and criminal case verdicts?

How do jurors' litigation crisis beliefs affect punitive damage awards?

How does a juror's locus of control influence liability decisions?

How does jurors' authoritarianism affect criminal verdicts?

How are jurors' religious beliefs related to death penalty verdicts?

Which jurors are more favorable toward the use of expert witnesses?

Which dissenting jurors hang juries versus conform to majority opinion?

Do crime victims convict defendants?

How impartial are jurors in sex abuse cases?

RACE

How does mentioning racial bias in voir dire affect juror decision-making?

Does it help or hurt when racial differences are a salient issue at trial?

When is playing the race card an effective strategy?

How does the racial diversity of juries affect verdicts?

Do minority jurors participate less in deliberations than White jurors?

How does racial composition of a jury affect capital sentencing?

When are juries more lenient toward African-American than White defendants?

When do Black jurors judge Black defendants more harshly than White defendants?

How do jurors treat plaintiffs who don't speak English?

Do jurors believe non-native speakers are as truthful as native speakers?

Are Spanish-speaking witnesses more credible to Spanish-speaking jurors?

Are jurors more persuaded by attorneys of their own or another race?

Are jurors fairer to Hispanic defendants with non-Hispanic attorneys?

Are jurors biased against ethnic minority attorneys?

How does litigants' race influence verdicts in sexual harassment cases?

Do jurors like cultural explanations of conduct in sexual harassment cases?

GENDER

Which influence style is persuasive for female attorneys?

Do male or female prosecutors get more convictions?

Do male or female criminal defense attorneys get more acquittals?

Do male or female defense attorneys get more acquittals in rape trials?

How do women and minority plaintiffs fare in employment cases tried to juries?

How does litigants' gender affect jury verdicts in sexual harassment cases?

Does a juror's gender affect verdicts in gender discrimination cases?

Do women jurors lean toward the prosecution or defense in rape trials?

Do male jurors talk more than female jurors in deliberations?

Does the gender of an expert witness affect his/her credibility?

Juries         Decision-Making   ·   Judicial Instructions 

 

JURY DECISION-MAKING

Do juries reach different decisions than judges?

Do bench or jury trials yield more mistakenly rejected settlement offers?

Do jurors award the same or different damages as arbitrators and judges?

When do judges award higher punitive damages than juries?

Are judges better than juries at setting inadmissible evidence aside?

When are juries more likely than judges to convict criminal defendants?

How do bifurcated versus unitary trials affect jurors' verdicts?

Do jurors discuss attorneys' fees when awarding damages?

Do jurors discuss insurance in deliberations when awarding damages?

What influences jurors' initial votes in criminal trials?

Have jurors made up their mind by the end of opening statements?

When do jurors first form their verdict preferences?

Do jurors recognize that trial evidence is selective and not all of the facts?

When does "if only" thinking affect jurors' verdicts about accidents?

Are juror questions for witnesses helpful or disruptive?

Are verdicts harsher when the most severe verdict option is decided first or last?

Do jurors award more money when given general or special verdict forms?

How do multiple charges against a defendant influence jurors' verdicts?

How does the racial diversity of juries affect verdicts?

Do male jurors talk more than female jurors in deliberations?

How does a juror's social status affect participation in deliberations?

Do larger or smaller juries perform better?

How often does a jury's minority sway the majority to its point of view?

Why do juries hang?

Which dissenting jurors hang juries versus conform to majority opinion?

In which cases is settlement most often mistakenly rejected?

Who most often mistakenly rejects settlement -- plaintiffs or defendants?

Are defendants who lose civil jury trials at a disadvantage on appeal?

JUDICIAL INSTRUCTIONS

Can jurors disregard hearsay evidence?

Can jurors follow instructions limiting use of a defendant's prior conviction?

How able are jurors to disregard stricken evidence?

How can jurors be instructed more effectively to disregard inadmissible evidence?

Are judges better than juries at setting inadmissible evidence aside?

How well do jurors understand jury instructions?

How well do jurors understand negligence instructions?

Do instructions about loss of enjoyment of life increase damage awards?

How does pre-instruction about damages influence damage awards?

Do instructions help jurors understand presumption of innocence and burden of proof?

How well do jurors understand jury instructions on reasonable doubt?

Which definition of reasonable doubt reduces conviction rates?

Does voir dire or judicial instruction best educate about due process rights?

Does pre-instructing juries about due process rights influence verdicts?

To what extent do juries discuss jury instructions in deliberations?

Persuasion         Strategies   ·   Graphics   ·   Language 

 

STRATEGIES       FOR ATTORNEYS   ·   FOR WITNESSES   ·   FOR SPECIFIC EVIDENCE

For Attorneys

Are brief or extensive opening statements more effective?

Are defense openings more persuasive if given initially or reserved for later?

What is the effect of a promise made in opening that goes unfulfilled?

Have jurors made up their mind by the end of opening statements?

Can closing argument reduce jurors' use of "20-20 hindsight"?

Do religious appeals most help the prosecution or defense in capital sentencing?

Do jurors like cultural explanations of conduct in sexual harassment cases?

How do objections influence jurors' treatment of inadmissible testimony?

Which influence style is persuasive for female attorneys?

How do apologies affect settlement demands?

In which cases is settlement most often mistakenly rejected?

Do bench or jury trials yield more mistakenly rejected settlement offers?

Are defendants who lose civil jury trials at a disadvantage on appeal?

For Witnesses

Do jurors differentiate what is stated in, from what is implied by, testimony?

Does testimony of trivial details hurt or help a witness' credibility?

When does exposing inconsistencies in witness testimony affect verdicts?

Does refutation of peripheral details hurt an eyewitness's credibility?

Are leading or non-leading questions better at exposing inaccurate witnesses?

Do complex questions to child witnesses help or hurt the defense?

How does cross-examination question phrasing affect witness accuracy?

Are juror questions for witnesses helpful or disruptive?

What criteria do jurors use to judge the credibility of expert testimony?

How do jurors handle conflicting expert testimony?

Are experts more persuasive using anecdotes or data?

How do leading questions influence jurors' perceptions of experts?

What questioning style is most effective for discrediting an expert witness?

For Specific Evidence

Is incriminating evidence more powerful when presented first or last during a trial?

What is stealing thunder and how do I respond to it?

Is comparing death risks from asbestos exposure to other substances persuasive?

How do jurors react to a corporation's cost-benefit analysis?

When does "if only" thinking affect jurors' verdicts about accidents?

Do jurors like cultural explanations of conduct in sexual harassment cases?

When do physical and character evidence dilute information diagnostic of guilt?

Does it help or hurt when racial differences are a salient issue at trial?

When is playing the race card an effective strategy?

Do jurors treat alcohol abuse and child abuse as mitigators in capital cases?

Do jurors expect scientific evidence in criminal cases?

How often are jurors presented invalid scientific evidence?

What do jurors think of circumstantial evidence?

Can jurors distinguish circumstantial and direct evidence?

Do jurors differentiate what is stated in, from what is implied by, testimony?

Do jurors recognize that trial evidence is selective and not all of the facts?

GRAPHICS

Which jurors are most influenced by the use of courtroom technology?

How do computer animations affect jurors?

How do jurors respond to live versus videotaped testimony?

How does viewing a crime scene videotape affect jury verdicts?

How does the camera angle of a videotaped confession influence verdicts?

LANGUAGE

How do jurors treat plaintiffs who don't speak English?

Are witnesses who don't speak English less credible to jurors?

Do jurors believe non-native speakers are as truthful as native speakers?

How do interpreters affect the credibility of witnesses?

Are Spanish-speaking witnesses more credible to Spanish-speaking jurors?

How does cross-examination question phrasing affect witness accuracy?

How does question wording affect witnesses' answers of frequency?

How does the verb, adjective and article in questions affect witnesses' answers?

What speech style is most effective for witnesses?

Do complex questions to child witnesses help or hurt the defense?

How do leading questions influence jurors' perceptions of experts?

How do apologies affect settlement demands?

People      Judges   ·   Attorneys   ·   Witnesses   ·   Experts   ·   Litigants 

 

JUDGES

Do juries reach different decisions than judges?

Do jurors attend to judges’ nonverbal behavior?

Do jurors return verdicts in accordance with a judge's leaning?

Do jurors award the same or different damages as arbitrators and judges?

When do judges award higher punitive damages than juries?

When are juries more likely than judges to convict criminal defendants?

How do judges' backgrounds affect sexual harassment case outcomes?

How often are jurors presented invalid scientific evidence?

Are judges better than juries at setting inadmissible evidence aside?

ATTORNEYS

Does a plaintiff attorney's reputation affect settlement decisions of defendants?

How do apologies affect settlement demands?

How do objections influence jurors' treatment of inadmissible testimony?

What questioning style is most effective for discrediting an expert witness?

Which influence style is persuasive for female attorneys?

How do successful and unsuccessful prosecutors and defense attorneys speak?

How do private attorneys compare to public defenders and court-appointed attorneys?

Do male or female criminal defense attorneys get more acquittals?

Do male or female defense attorneys get more acquittals in rape trials?

Do male or female prosecutors get more convictions?

Are jurors fairer to Hispanic defendants with Hispanic attorneys?

Are jurors more persuaded by attorneys of their own or another race?

Are jurors biased against ethnic minority attorneys?

WITNESSES

Do jurors believe nervous witnesses?

Which witness preparation method is most effective -- simulation or training?

How does witness instruction in cross-examination techniques affect answers?

What speech style is most effective for witnesses?

How does the reading of deposition testimony at trial affect jurors?

How do jurors respond to live versus videotaped testimony?

How does the verb, adjective and article in questions affect witnesses' answers?

How does question wording affect witnesses' answers of frequency?

How does cross-examination question phrasing affect witness accuracy?

Are leading or non-leading questions better at exposing inaccurate witnesses?

Do complex questions to child witnesses help or hurt the defense?

Does testimony of trivial details hurt or help a witness' credibility?

Does refutation of peripheral details hurt an eyewitness's credibility?

When does exposing inconsistencies in witness testimony affect verdicts?

Do jurors differentiate what is stated in, from what is implied by, testimony?

Are witnesses who don't speak English less credible to jurors?

Do jurors believe non-native speakers are as truthful as native speakers?

How do interpreters affect the credibility of witnesses?

Are Spanish-speaking witnesses more credible to Spanish-speaking jurors?

EXPERTS

Are experts more persuasive using anecdotes or data?

What criteria do jurors use to judge the credibility of expert testimony?

How important to jurors are the credentials of expert witnesses?

How do jurors handle conflicting expert testimony?

Which jurors are more favorable toward the use of expert witnesses?

What type of doctor is most credible to jurors as an expert witness?

Does the gender of an expert witness affect his/her credibility?

How do jurors respond to expert psychological testimony?

Are jurors most persuaded by clinical or actuarial psychological expert testimony?

How does expert testimony about eyewitness fallibility affect verdicts?

How do leading questions influence jurors' perceptions of experts?

What questioning style is most effective for discrediting an expert witness?

LITIGANTS       CIVIL DEFENDANTS   ·   CIVIL PLAINTIFFS   ·   CRIMINAL DEFENDANTS

Civil Defendants

How do jurors perceive corporate defendants?

Can jurors treat corporations as they do individuals?

Why are damages higher against corporate versus individual defendants?

What do jurors expect of product manufacturers?

To what standard of care do jurors hold auditors?

How does litigants' race influence verdicts in sexual harassment cases?

When does "if only" thinking affect jurors' verdicts about accidents?

Civil Plaintiffs

How do jurors treat plaintiffs who don't speak English?

How do women and minority plaintiffs fare in employment cases tried to juries?

How does litigants' gender affect jury verdicts in sexual harassment cases?

How does litigants' race influence verdicts in sexual harassment cases?

How does litigant attractiveness affect verdicts in sexual harassment cases?

How do apologies affect settlement demands?

Do jurors like cultural explanations of conduct in sexual harassment cases?

When does "if only" thinking affect jurors' verdicts about accidents?

Criminal Defendants

Are defendants who show emotion during trial more or less likely to be convicted?

How does a defendant's facial expression affect jury verdicts?

Does facial hair matter on a criminal defendant?

When are juries more lenient toward African-American than White defendants?

When do Black jurors judge Black defendants more harshly than White defendants?

Are jurors fairer to Hispanic defendants with non-Hispanic attorneys?

When are attractive defendants convicted more than unattractive defendants?

Can jurors follow instructions limiting use of a defendant's prior conviction?

Can voir dire questions help jurors set aside a litigant's prior record?

Do jurors believe confessions can be false?

Do jurors treat alcohol abuse and child abuse as mitigators in capital cases?

Cases        Case Types   ·   Civil Issues   ·   Criminal Issues 

 

TYPES   SEX  ·  MURDER  ·  DEATH  ·  OTHER CRIMINAL  ·   EMPLOY  ·   INJURY  ·   PRODUCT  ·  OTHER CIVIL

Sexual Assault (Civil & Criminal)

How impartial are jurors in sex abuse cases?

Do women jurors lean toward the prosecution or defense in rape trials?

Do male or female defense attorneys get more acquittals in rape trials?

Do complex questions to child witnesses help or hurt the defense?

How does alcohol use affect jurors' judgments of sexual assault?

Are women who carry condoms less credible sexual assault victims?

How do jurors judge the severity of sexual harassment?

Do jurors think sexual harassment by email or in person is worse?

Do jurors like cultural explanations of conduct in sexual harassment cases?

How do judges' backgrounds affect sexual harassment case outcomes?

How does litigant attractiveness affect verdicts in sexual harassment cases?

How does litigants' gender affect jury verdicts in sexual harassment cases?

How does litigants' race influence verdicts in sexual harassment cases?

Murder

How do jurors' beliefs about emotion influence murder versus manslaughter verdicts?

When do jurors vote for manslaughter rather than murder?

Death Penalty

Do jurors treat alcohol abuse and child abuse as mitigators in capital cases?

Do religious appeals most help the prosecution or defense in capital sentencing?

How are jurors' religious beliefs related to death penalty verdicts?

How does racial composition of a jury affect capital sentencing?

Do jury consultants affect verdicts in death penalty cases?

Other Criminal

What are jurors' attitudes toward battered women who kill?

How do jurors understand an entrapment defense?

How do jurors understand elder abuse and neglect cases?

Employment

How do women and minority plaintiffs fare in employment cases tried to juries?

Does a juror's gender affect verdicts in gender discrimination cases?

Personal Injury

How do juror characteristics affect verdicts in personal injury cases?

Does the severity of a plaintiff's injury affect jurors' liability decisions?

When does "if only" thinking affect jurors' verdicts about accidents?

What do jurors think about whiplash cases?

Product Liability

What responsibility is assigned a priori to manufacturers and users for product injuries?

How do companies' general safety practices influence product liability verdicts?

How do warnings on products affect jurors' allocation of responsibility for injuries?

Other Civil

Do jurors protect civil rights when illegal searches find illegal items?

To what standard of care do jurors hold auditors?

Is comparing death risks from asbestos exposure to other substances persuasive?

How common are frivolous medical malpractice claims?

CIVIL CASE ISSUES       SETTLEMENT   ·   LIABILITY   ·   DAMAGES

Settlement

How do ‘CCCP 998 offers’ affect settlement decisions?

Does a plaintiff attorney's reputation affect settlement decisions of defendants?

How common are frivolous medical malpractice claims?

In which cases is settlement most often mistakenly rejected?

Who most often mistakenly rejects settlement -- plaintiffs or defendants?

Do bench or jury trials yield more mistakenly rejected settlement offers?

Liability

How does pretrial publicity in a civil case affect jury verdicts?

How does a juror's locus of control influence liability decisions?

How do bifurcated versus unitary trials affect jurors' verdicts?

How does the aggregation of plaintiffs influence liability and damage awards?

Does the severity of a plaintiff's injury affect jurors' liability decisions?

Do jurors protect civil rights when illegal searches find illegal items?

What do jurors think about whiplash cases?

How do warnings on products affect jurors' allocation of responsibility for injuries?

What responsibility is assigned a priori to manufacturers and users for product injuries?

How do juror characteristics affect verdicts in personal injury cases?

To what standard of care do jurors hold auditors?

When does "if only" thinking affect jurors' verdicts about accidents?

Damages

How do bifurcated versus unitary trials affect jurors' verdicts?

Does bifurcation of damages affect compensatory awards?

How does the aggregation of plaintiffs influence liability and damage awards?

What damages do jurors award to non-negligent versus partially negligent plaintiffs?

Can jurors ignore a plaintiff's injury when deciding a defendant's recklessness?

How are jurors affected by dollar amounts requested by plaintiffs?

Do larger per diem requests for noneconomic damages lead to larger awards?

Does a per diem or lump sum request yield a larger pain and suffering award?

Do jurors punish plaintiffs who request too much money?

Do plaintiffs need to be careful of how much money they request?

Do instructions about loss of enjoyment of life increase damage awards?

How does pre-instruction about damages influence damage awards?

How do jurors treat plaintiffs who don't speak English?

Why are damages higher against corporate versus individual defendants?

How do jurors react to a corporation's cost-benefit analysis?

How does a juror's occupation affect damage awards?

Do juror demographics predict punitive damages in high-stakes cases?

How do jurors' litigation crisis beliefs affect punitive damage awards?

Do jurors award the same or different damages as arbitrators and judges?

When do judges award higher punitive damages than juries?

What do jurors talk about in deliberations when deciding damages?

Do jurors discuss attorneys' fees when awarding damages?

Do jurors discuss insurance in deliberations when awarding damages?

When does "if only" thinking affect jurors' verdicts about accidents?

How do deliberations affect the decision to award punitive damages?

How do deliberations affect the size of punitive damage awards?

Do jurors award more money when given general or special verdict forms?

CRIMINAL CASE ISSUES

Do jurors recognize that trial evidence is selective and not all of the facts?

Do jurors expect scientific evidence in criminal cases?

How does a juror's social class influence understanding of evidence?

Does gruesome evidence matter?

How does viewing a crime scene videotape affect jury verdicts?

Do jurors believe confessions can be false?

How does the camera angle of a videotaped confession influence verdicts?

Which excuses do jurors believe excuse criminal acts?

Does character evidence help or hurt defendants in criminal trials?

When do physical and character evidence dilute information diagnostic of guilt?

How do jurors understand an entrapment defense?

When is playing the race card an effective strategy?

How does expert testimony about eyewitness fallibility affect verdicts?

Do religious appeals most help the prosecution or defense in capital sentencing?

What is the effect of a lesser-included charge?

Are verdicts harsher when the most severe verdict option is decided first or last?

How do multiple charges against a defendant influence jurors' verdicts?

How well do jurors understand jury instructions on reasonable doubt?

Which definition of reasonable doubt reduces conviction rates?

Can jurors follow instructions limiting use of a defendant's prior conviction?

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